Martes, 03 Enero 2017

Un año más de combate al narco sin un marco legal para el Ejército mexicano*

Valora este artículo
(1 Voto)

Pablo Ferri

“Fuimos usados por el Estado mexicano. Se nos capacitó para una función y se nos ordenó hacer otra muy diferente (…) El señor Felipe Calderón, excomandante supremo de las Fuerzas Armadas, declaró la guerra al narcotráfico y fue un término muy desafortunado”. Así se expresa un grupo de 20 militares presos, en una carta enviada hace unos días al presidente de la República, la Cámara de Diputados y el Poder Judicial de la Federación. Todos están en proceso o condenados por delitos cometidos durante los años duros de la Guerra contra el Narco, en el sexenio del ex presidente Calderón. Algunos cumplen penas de hasta 31 años.

La misiva trasciende en un momento en que México discute legislar la participación de las Fuerzas Armadas en tareas de seguridad pública. Tras la llegada de Calderón al poder en diciembre de 2006, los militares salieron de sus cuarteles y asumieron el papel de la policía en varios estados del país. Era una situación extraordinaria. El presidente se apoyó entonces en el artículo 29 de la Constitución, que permite echar mano del Ejército cuando exista una "perturbación grave de la paz pública". La idea era depurar los cuerpos de seguridad y prepararlos para combatir a los cárteles del narcotráfico. Diez años más tarde, la policía de muchos estados siguen sin funcionar y una solución momentánea –las Fuerzas Armadas– se ha convertido en permanente.

En todo este tiempo, la Comisión Nacional de Derechos Humanos ha denunciado en decenas de ocasiones torturas, abusos y asesinatos cometidos por militares. La presión se ha sentido al interior del Ejército, hasta el punto de que el secretario de la Defensa, el general Salvador Cienfuegos, declaró el pasado 9 de diciembre que el Ejército no se siente a gusto persiguiendo delincuentes. “Nuestros soldados”, dijo, “ya le están pensando si le entran a seguir enfrentando a estos grupos, con el riesgo de ser procesados por un delito que tenga que ver con derechos humanos”. 

Cienfuegos pedía un “marco jurídico” para el actuar de la tropa, una ley que regule su presencia en las calles. En las últimas semanas senadores y diputados han presentado iniciativas en este sentido. Uno de los puntos que comparten es la necesidad de delimitar en tiempo y forma el actuar de las Fuerzas Armadas en tareas de seguridad. Otro es detallar cómo enfrentar a los delincuentes dependiendo de la situación. El Congreso y el Senado tendrían que pasar la legislación.

Los expertos recelan de estas propuestas porque, dicen, no se entiende muy bien cuál es la pretensión. Catalina Pérez Correa, investigadora de la División de Estudios Jurídicos del CIDE, uno de los centros más prestigiosos de México, dice que las propuestas son “vagas”. “Pareciera que lo que están pidiendo”, añade, “es una ley para que no les acusen de violaciones a derechos humanos”. Maureen Meyer, directora del programa para México de la Oficina en Washington para Asuntos de Latinoamérica, asume que “la reacción inmediata de un soldado es aplicar la fuerza. El problema que tenemos es una cuestión de capacitación”.

Durante las últimas semanas, la discusión ha versado no tanto sobre la capacitación de los militares sino más bien sobre el marco jurídico, la necesidad de dar “seguridad” al Ejército cuando actúe de policía. Pero, ¿seguridad para qué? ¿Legitimidad para hacer qué?

En su carta a los poderes ejecutivo, legislativo y judicial, los militares dicen: “Fuimos usados por el Estado mexicano en un fallido experimento donde resultó una cantidad enorme de víctimas colaterales y decenas de militares de poca graduación en prisión”. Pérez Correa interpreta la carta y dice que una de las cosas que piden los 20 es “la exoneración”. Para ellos, es responsable “quien los sacó a las calles sin preparación, quien los instruyó a hacer algo que produjo muertes colaterales”.

Casi al final de la carta, los 20 concluyen: “¿Qué opina el Secretario de la Defensa Nacional? [Que] ‘Estamos haciendo una función para la que no estamos preparados’, [que] ‘ninguno de nosotros vino a las FFAA para hacer esto’. Si esto opina el titular de las Fuerzas Armadas, ¿dónde quedamos nosotros?”.

Si el general Cienfuegos asume que fue un “error” implicar al Ejército en la lucha contra el narco, ¿en qué posición quedan los militares presos? ¿En qué posición quedan quienes siguen enfrentando al crimen organizado hasta que el comandante en jefe diga lo contrario?

Pérez Correa apuesta por una ley en que la suspensión de garantías constitucionales, por la actuación puntual del Ejército, sea por un tiempo definido. Además, dice, debe prever un mecanismo por el que los poderes legislativo y judicial controlen los operativos. “Y sobre todo”, dice Maureen Meyer, “cualquier ley de seguridad interior debería contemplar un plan de retirada de las Fuerzas Armadas”.

*Publicado en internacional.elpais.com [enero 2, 2017]

Consulta también:

Modificado por última vez en Viernes, 26 Mayo 2017 10:03

10342 comentarios

  • Enlace al Comentario Betty Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 09:16 publicado por Betty

    I think the admin of this website is really working hard
    for his site, as here every data is quality based stuff.

  • Enlace al Comentario BetatmermaCer Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 09:16 publicado por BetatmermaCer

    ohl hemp oil arthritis

  • Enlace al Comentario Dotty Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 09:13 publicado por Dotty

    Monokinis swimwear
    We should not be too hard on ourselves thinking that
    only models deserve pretty and body revealing bikini bottoms.
    Take a risk and see what happens cheeky cut may become your favorite!
    It makes even bigger booties look smaller and curvy at the same time!
    The special cut enhances curves and praises feminine silhouette.
    Thanks to cheeky bottoms your lower parts will
    get some suntan and it will make them look fabulous!
    A bronze bum helps to hide some flaws we do not always appreciate like cellulite, stretch marks and other subtle imperfections on the skin.

    swimwear sale In December 2004, Sprint (NYSE:S) announced the acquisition of Nextel
    for $35 billion. At that time, Sprint had less than $8 million in intangible assets listed on the balance sheet.

    Intangible assets are currently nearly $60 billion or nearly 2/3 of total
    assets for the company. swimwear sale

    dresses sale GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that
    affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, the
    reported amount of net revenue and expenses and the disclosure of
    commitments and contingencies during the reporting periods.

    We base estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions
    about the future believed to be reasonable based on available information. Our reported financial position or
    results of operations may be materially different under changed conditions
    or when using different estimates and assumptions, particularly with respect to
    significant accounting policies. dresses sale

    swimwear sale You could always get an actual
    "Photo ID". Not a driver license copy, but just a state photo identification card.
    When I got to festivals, I leave my driver license in the hotel and just take
    my photo ID. In the animated series, Jay still uses the Noisy
    cricket with the same avail. However, he eventually gives it a suppressor so it no longer kicks.

    In the second film, Jay gives the neuralyzed Kay the Noisy Cricket just as the opposite had
    happened in the previous movie. swimwear sale

    cheap swimwear Where can a homeless child get
    help?Sometimes, a child can be homeless and alone.
    Sometimes this happens by accident such as through a natural disaster but more often it is due to abandonment
    or due to the child running away from home. Who would be best for the child
    to get help from depends a great deal upon the situation. cheap swimwear

    Cheap Swimsuits Mill is an immortal deck archetype because
    far too many of us find it simply hilarious.

    Which is nice, it covers for my current deck of choice, which is also a rogue deck that runs coldlights, shadowsteps, and vanishes.
    So people can misplay thinking I playing mill when in fact I just trying to get my own deck empty and play 12 spells as quickly as possible so I can drop 4 or 5 8/8s on turn 10 or so.

    Cheap Swimsuits

    cheap bikinis Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service.
    (Privacy Policy)CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos.
    (Privacy Policy)FeaturesGoogle Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the
    site. cheap bikinis

    cheap swimwear You definitely don have to spend LMZ price, but hey if you want to and can no prob there haha.
    Fwiw friend had a Monza which is about as good as you can get for a home superauto,
    for one it uses a real group unlike almost all the other pseudo fake pressurized type ones
    used by others, grinder is better, metal for temp stability and temps are good etc.
    Yet that was almost a $3k machine and it still couldn compare to my first "real" setup of
    just a CC1 and Vario which was just under 1k. cheap swimwear

    cheap swimwear Then I usually ask her what her workout schedule is because she does a lot of classes that are at
    specific times. For me I found that this is key working around her schedule since I the
    one that trying to fit a lot in. It makes it less about "these are the things I doing, here is where you fall.. cheap swimwear

    swimwear sale Fashion merchandising jobs require both a fashion sense and good knowledge of business management skills such as strategy and marketing. Fashion stylists arrange completed garments and accessories on celebrities and models in an appealing way that enables them to make a good impression and boost self confidence. Such stylists find work when recording music videos, advertisements, television shows and movies, and in fashion shows and high society parties.. swimwear sale

    "Before I change your account type, I would like
    to provide you the benefits of having Signature Advantage account.
    Please know that this account has associated World Debit card, which has daily
    ATM limit of $2,525.00 and daily POS limit is $30,000.00. Also, the non SunTrust ATM
    fee will not be assessed, if you have world debit card linked to Signature Advantage account.


    cheap swimwear Main offering is direct flights to Bali and Kuala Lumpur
    as a full service legacy carrier. Your airfares will include food, entertainment and baggage and when you compare pricing with the low cost carriers it
    really is quite competitive for a full service offering.
    Malindo Air, which launched in 2013, only started flying the Brisbane route in March, and has been flying to Perth since 2015..
    cheap swimwear

    Bathing Suits This sem, I have two hours between my Monday classes.
    The Quarter has one of those cool boiling taps, so I take a little container of instant coffee.
    There a microwave where I can warm a snack. In August 2016,
    the Financial Accounting Standards Board ( issued Accounting Standards Update ( 2016 18, Statement
    of Cash Flows (Topic 230). The objective of this update is to provide additional guidance and reduce diversity in practice when classifying certain transactions within the statement of
    cash flows. In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016 18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash.
    Bathing Suits

    Got my first pair of strappy high heel sandals two
    months ago. I now have three pairs. Have silver, pink and beige.
    I would not agree with this premise. Again, I guess
    my position would be that gods are an experience of the human psyche that is occurring among many, but
    I have never had any religious experience and have never seriously entertained a world view where gods are any more
    real than hallucinations. Still, bending my thoughts through concepts is
    a nice idea to me, but calling it a god or goddess feels like it comes with a lot of historical baggage that I rather not deal with..


    Monokinis swimwear Her parents are producers Donald P.
    Bellisario and Deborah Pratt.[1] Donald P. She has a younger
    brother,[2] three half sisters, two half brothers, and is a step
    sister of actor Sean Murray and producer Chad W.
    The health effects of Agent Orange truly form the core of its legacy.
    Numerous people in Vietnam still say that Agent Orange has irreparably damaged
    their health, killed friends and relatives, and caused birth defects and health problems in their children. One man told BBC News that Agent Orange essentially destroyed his legs
    and gave him chronic headaches [source: BBC News].
    Monokinis swimwear

    Cheap Swimsuits Natural gas markets are benefiting from structural changes; namely broader reach to markets and ample demand.
    As I've pounded the desk to splinters about takeaway capacity, EQT
    will equally grow. More should be read here about the Mountain Valley Pipeline, its
    capacity and unlocking the Marcellus and Utica..
    Cheap Swimsuits

    Sexy Bikini Swimsuit Sometimes I feel like humanity is a
    genetically flawed species. Compared to the little good we ever do, there is
    just a staggeringly long list of all the fucked up things humanity is responsible.

    The world and every other species that lives here would
    be GREATLY better off if we did not exist Sexy
    Bikini Swimsuit.

  • Enlace al Comentario jefhiquellsoush Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 09:07 publicado por jefhiquellsoush

    cjt cbd oil in canada weu cbd oil benefits
    hne cbd oil at walmart

  • Enlace al Comentario Kina Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 09:06 publicado por Kina

    Its like you read my mind! You appear to know so much about this, like you wrote the book in it or something.
    I think that you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a little bit,
    but instead of that, this is magnificent blog. A fantastic read.
    I'll definitely be back.

  • Enlace al Comentario LarryKew Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 09:06 publicado por LarryKew

    Terrific info. Thanks. top rated online canadian pharmacies

  • Enlace al Comentario Karin Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 09:05 publicado por Karin

    I'd like to thank you for the efforts you have
    put in writing this blog. I am hoping to view the same high-grade blog posts from you later on as
    well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me
    to get my own, personal blog now ;)

  • Enlace al Comentario ndkkSwarl Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 08:52 publicado por ndkkSwarl

    no prescription viagra [url=https://vigraprescription.com/]how to get viagra prescription online[/url] can i get viagra without a prescription online doctor prescription for viagra need prescription for viagra

  • Enlace al Comentario Lindsey Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 08:51 publicado por Lindsey

    This is the perfect blog for anybody who would like to find out
    about this topic. You realize so much its almost tough to argue
    with you (not that I personally will need to…HaHa).
    You certainly put a fresh spin on a topic that's been written about for a long time.

    Great stuff, just great!

  • Enlace al Comentario Chainundisula Lunes, 09 Diciembre 2019 08:48 publicado por Chainundisula

    lgu [url=https://besthempcbd1.com/#]where to buy cbd oil[/url] jwo [url=https://besthempcbd1.com/#]full spectrum hemp oil[/url]

Deja un comentario

Asegúrate de llenar la información requerida marcada con (*). No está permitido el código HTML. Tu dirección de correo NO será publicada.